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The study of physical characteristics of earth and the distribution and effects of life on earth, especially that of humans.

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Astigmatic effect

Eyewear; Optometry

Collective description of the cylindrical power and the cylinder axis.

Distance optical centre

Eyewear; Optometry

Optical centre of the distance portion.

Reference seeing distance

Eyewear; Optometry

Agreed distance of 250 mm between the object side (first) nodal point of the eye and the object observed. The reference seeing distance is used, above all, as a reference ...

Intraocular pressure

Eyewear; Optometry

Eye pressure, as determined by the amount of aqueous humour filling it. High IOP (ocular hypertension) can be a sign of glaucoma


Eyewear; Optometry

Displacement of a multifocal segment from the distance reference point towards the nose, usually whithout reference to the effect on the near optical centres.

Interpupillary distance

Eyewear; Optometry

Distance between the centres of the pupils when the eyes are fixating an object at an infinite distance in the straight-ahead position.

Fitting point position

Eyewear; Optometry

Vertical and horizontal fitting distances and directions of the fitting point from the boxed centre of the lens shape.