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Newton Isaak

Newton (Newton) and Isaac (4.1.1643, Woolsthorpe, near Graptema, u2012 31.3.1727, Kensington), English physicist and mathematician who created the theoretical foundations of mechanics and astronomy who discovered the law of gravity, who (along with g. Leibniz) differential and integral calculus, the inventor of the telescope and the author of the most important experimental work on optics.

n. was born in a farmer's family; his father n. died shortly before the birth of his son in 12 years n. Grantemskoj began studying at the school, in 1661 he entered Trinity College at Cambridge University as a subsajzera (the poor students, providing for duties of servants in College), where his teacher was the famous mathematician and Barrow. University, n. in 1665 got a Bachelor's degree in 1665/u201267during the black plague, was in his home village of Woolsthorpe; those years were the most productive in the scientific work of n. Here it enjoys basically the ideas that led him to the creation of the differential and integral calculus, to the invention of the telescope (hand made in 1668; see Newton's Reflector System), the discovery of the law of gravity (see Newton's law of gravity), he conducted experiments on the decomposition of light (see Dispersion of light). In 1668 he was awarded a master's degree, and in 1669 Barrow gave him an honorary lûkasovskuû of physical and mathematical faculty, which he held until 1701. In 1671 he built the second mirror telescope u2012 large size and better quality. Demonstration of the telescope has made a strong impression on his contemporaries, and soon after he was elected (in January 1672) fellow of the Royal Society (in 1703 became its President). In 1687 he published his great work philosophiæ Naturalis (short u2012 "beginning"). In 1695 was appointed Superintendent of the Mint (this obviously contributed to the fact that n. studied properties of metals). N. to guide perečekankoj the English coins. He managed to put in order the frustrated coinage of England, for which he received in good salaring job title Director, lifelong 1699 Mint. In the same year, n. elected a foreign member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. In 1705 for the academic writings he elevated to the dignity. He is buried in the national pantheon English u2012 Westminster Abbey.

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