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kyoto protocol

An international agreement arranged in 1997 in an 11 day conference that took place in Kyoto, Japan. The agreement, coming into force in 2005, required industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perflurocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, by an average of 5% (of 1990 emission levels) by 2008 – 2012. It was ratified by 141 countries including China and India but excluding the U. S. , Australia, and Monaco. While some countries are on target to meet their emission cuts, many signatories will not meet their targets by 2012.

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